The Joshua Tree and Infrared Light: A Sensor-driven Sound Performance

I create artwork, which captures live data from natural phenomena that is invisible to humans, and translate the data it into soundscapes, what many call data sonification. I’ve worked with water quality, air quality, electrical activity in mycelium and much more. The artworks aren’t just soundtracks. They take the forms of sculptural installations or even performances that others can experience viscerally.

This spring, I was invited to be an artist-in-residence at Joshua Tree National Park, which is my favorite of all the National Parks. I love this landscape so much, and feel so alive and present in the high desert.

I’ve created many site-specific sound installation in different parts of the world, including Abu Dhabi, Thailand, Slovenia and various ecosystems in the United States. Here, I knew I had to focus on the Joshua Tree itself. It’s iconic, and it’s a keystone species that it hosts a variety of other organisms. Without the Joshua Tree, this desert ecosystem would be drastically different.

The challenge was that, because this was in a National Park, I couldn’t damage the flora in any way, so putting nails in the plants (the Joshua Tree is a yucca), or even attaching any sort of sensor to it wasn’t going to happen.

In the weeks before the residency and after some research and brainstorming, I designed experiments of where I would use spectral sensors that tracked visible light by holding them near the Joshua Tree. These worked surprisingly well and I could integrate them into my wireless custom hardware + software system. Then, I found similar ones that captured data from wavelengths of near-infrared light: the light just outside the visible spectrum, well, visible to humans at least.

I did research on how the Joshua Tree might react. Maybe there would be some differences in the data, maybe not. I based my experiments on articles such as these, which suggest that a high percentage of IR light is reflected (not emitted) from the leaves of healthy plants and the chlorophyll itself is responsible via this article by NASA and this one by USGS.

On my first day, at the park, I did some data logging from a nearby Joshua Tree.

The wave lengths of light here captures here are at 730, 760, 810 and 860nm.

The first one is of the “barky part” — the dead brown leaves of the plant.

For the scientists in the audience, the labels on the graph correspond to my sensor hardware transmission code:

988_T = 730nm

988_U = 760nm

988_V = 810nm

988_W = 860nm

The second one is of the live green leaves.

When I saw this, I was floored. The low readings were from the base of the tree and the high readings were from the leafy parts. This was exactly what I had thought it could do, but the differences was stark.

What’s amazing is that we can think of these sensor readings roughly as an indicator of health of plants. Yes, I would expect this to work on other plants and trees and haven’t even yet tested the project on them. That’s for another day.

This was one of my early experiments. Forgive the sound quality!

Further research cited this National Library of Medicine article indicates that the high near-infrared reflectance is due to “high scattering of light by the leaf mesophyll tissues”, not the chlorophyll (as I stated in the video). I find the scientific source material to be fascinating and want my sensor-driven soundscapes to be based in true signal and not just noise.

Remember that color isn’t real. Color is data that we receive and construct in our brains. What is reality are photos: small particles of electromagnetic energy, each with a unique wavelength. In the near-infrared spectrum is a stream of data that we cannot perceive, but it is out there and other organisms, usually non-mammalian can see them. That’s how mosquitos find tasty meals. Frogs and salmon use the IR spectrum to navigate through murky waters. Vampire bats use infrared vision to locate prey.

I spent my time during this short residency, which was less than month, building a stable electronics system and mostly working on a soundscape that I felt would express the Joshua Trees in the park on May 4th, 2024. I decided to “play” a few different Joshua Trees like a theremin in a performance, using a “sloth glove”, which would host the sensor on the palm. More on the sloth below…

(Photo by NPS/ Paul Martinez)

For the sound design, I designed four different “instruments” that I could activate with a handheld controller, which had latching buttons on them. I could mute/unmute different tracks, creating a dynamic performance where I could move around without using the computer. Each one corresponded to one of the four different wavelengths of light.

Here are the some of the live data sound recordings from each of the tracks:

Joshua Tree National Park, 2024, High Notes

Joshua Tree National Park, 2024, Like a Theremin

Joshua Tree National Park, 2024, Water Guitar

Joshua Tree National Park, 2024, Electric Piano

About the sloth

The Shasta ground sloth (, now extinct, used to eat the seeds of the Joshua Tree and poop them out, and in a symbiotic relationship, spreading the plant over wide distances, dispersing them over a wider range than they now can travel.

As climate change changes the ecology of the desert environment where the Joshua Tree lives, the plant is now under environmental distress. Since it is a keystone species, that hosts many organisms, and is essential to its desert ecosystem, the health of this species is even more important to this environment.

I see this artwork as a performance where I commune with the tree, reading it’s health and generating compositions from this.


And here is the final documentation video for the project.



An Evening of Mushroom Delights

Maria Finn is one of my favorite people. This summer she took me on a huckleberry foraging trip at a secret spot that was at, well, secret. She told me nature stories, we laughed a lot, went swimming in a lake, and I came home with several cups of huckleberries that I used for infusions.

A few weeks ago, we collaborated on Fungitopia, which was an evening of food, conversation and art that combined her talents as a chef and storyteller along with my work: a sound installation that generated “Mushroom Music” from the electrical activity of mycelium.


We packed people into my home studio at Xenoform Labs and sold out the event. Folks left feeling satiated, informed and excited about the sound installation.

Maria concocted a tasty evening of mushroom delights such as  a mushroom-centric grazing table, mushroom pizza, infused bourbon and even a desert.

But what impressed me the most was her talk on how truffle have seduced humans.The culture with the longest recorded use of desert truffles were the Bedouins of the Negev desert, who refer to desert truffles as “the thunder fungus”. Science now shows that lightning may pull hydrogen from the air and deposit it into the earth, helping truffles grow. Truffles were revered by Etruscans, considered aphrodisiacs by the Ancient Greeks and Romans, and outlawed as “witches stones” during the Middle Ages.

She also talked about how by training a truffle dog, she is learning how scent moves through the forest and how she is developing a language with her dog that is teaching her to be more connected with the animal and plant world. Plus, her dog, Flora Jane, is adorable.

I decided to use the name Fungitopia for my future sound installation, which is currently a work-in-progress. What this video shows is my first generation of it and what I plan to do is to develop a slowly-changing soundscape, where new instruments will play and old instruments will fade out, so that it shifts without you really noticing it.

This direction is hugely influenced by Brian’s Eno’s 77 Million Paintings, which I enjoyed at YBCA over a decade ago. As I watched the slowly shifting digital paintings. I could barely notice the work changing, but 15 minutes later, it looked completely different.

We’ve trained ourselves for immediacy and my sensor-based sound work celebrates nature-time: tree time, plant time, fungus time and slower cycles of nature.


Symphonic Forest – Pre-installation Walkthrough

Just before I showed my new sound installation work, Symphonic Forest, I did this walkthrough at the Bloedel Reserve. This was the sound check before the final installation and I was quite happy with the results.


And here are some final pictures of the installation.


Their videographer shot some video on the morning of the installation premiere and now I have to edit it together, so give me a couple weeks for that.

Symphonic Forest @ Bloedel Reserve

I’m midway through my 3 week summer residency at the Bloedel Reserve, where I am creating a new installation called Symphonic Forest, which is sculptural-sound installation that creates a data-driven soundscape from live data from trees.

It’s a lot of work! Come check out its premiere on Thursday, August 12th (noon to 5pm) and Friday, August 13th (10am-2pm).

You can buy advance tickets here

(there are no walkups)

What you will experience is a site-specific installation with emergent acoustic behavior of tree data, depicting several states that the forest will go through. When one tree goes to a new emotion, for example, being excited, then it will influence the other trees to do the same.

I’m thrilled to have this opportunity to create this new work in this amazing reserve. It’s an evolution of much of the work that I’ve done in the last 4 years, including Sonaqua, Unnatural Language (in collaboration with Michael Ang), and Botanic Quartet.

These are some preliminary videos:

Initial walk-through of the installation site (below)


Initial sound tests (below) at the installation site


Emergent Behavior Test (below) — this shows the 12 trees and the communication model, where they will go from one state to another, influencing one another. I modeled this in p5.js and the final version will use OSC over wifi with the ESP32 chips from the project.